The Physicochemical Universe
The Underpinnings of Current Cosmological Theories
Home | In the Beginning... Infinite Space, Infinite Time | Towards a Comprehensive and Comprehensible Cosmology | Cosmology Model Categories | Relativity, Quantum Theory, Scales of Size and Frames of Reference | The Underpinnings of Current Cosmological Theories | Hubble Redshift -- The Experimental Data | Far Infrared Measurements and Absolute Zero Temperatures | The Clumpiness of Matter Distribution | The Intergalactic Medium | The Nature of Dark Matter | The Interpretations of Current Cosmological Theories | Non-Linearity of Physical Phenomena | The Nature of Fields | Chaos Theory and Natural Universal Physical Phenomena | The Arrow of Time and The Tensors of Space-Time | The Second Law | Boundary Conditions of the Universe | Phase Changes of Matter and Black Hole Physics | Subatomic Particle Theory and Quark Physics | Magnetic Fields, Jets and Black Holes | The Formation and Evolution of Stars | The Formation of Higher Elements | Nova, Supernova and Higher Elements | Active Galactic Nuclei and Black Holes as Strange Attractors | The Formation and Evolution of Galactic Structure | Black Hole Collisions and Quasars | Broad Band Fluorescence and Redshift | Beers-Lambert Law Ignored | Physicochemical Reinterpretations | Black Holes, Quarks, and Hydrogen Regeneration Cycles | New Conclusions, Predictions and Opinions | Literature References | Hubble's Farthest Views | About the Author

(Under Construction)

(Under Construction)

Though the author is quite familiar with the more theoretical and mathematically rigorous treatments that many of modern cosmological models are based upon, this discussion will be minimalist in its mathematical descriptions. This is done for two reasons.

The first reason is that CONCEPTS precede and form the basis of hypotheses, not abstract mathematical relationships or derivatives. And everyone, even those without advanced mathematical training, should be able to fully grasp the underlying concepts without the quantitative rigor of a mathematically-based presentation.

The second reason is more esoteric. When theoretical physicists, cosmologists and astrophysicists impart a sometimes false reality to the purely mathematical descriptions that they develop, they often fall victim to either the emotional impact of their mathematical ruminations or become slavishly bound to the mathematical laws and corollaries that they follow, and which the actual physical reality might not track with. It is good to remember that we use mathematics to try to estimate or represent the actual quantitative behavior of any system. But the underlying physical reality may still have no real congruence with the equations we scribble on our blackboards and computers. Thus we should always keep our qualitative conceptualizations separate and somewhat independent of our subsequent mathematical models that attempt to describe the more measurable aspects of that system.
Physical chemists have developed an extraordinary respect for what has become known as "boundary conditions".  Boundary conditions is something of a scientific hedge due to the persistent perversion of Mother Nature to "not follow Man's rules about how it should behave"!  When and electron falls into a pure theoretical potential well, as basic quantum mechanics considers, it drops to some specific quantum level that can be described, measured and calculated to the nth degree with our basic equations.  In our basic theory, the electron will always remain in that potential well as long as no other energy intrudes and transfers to the electron.  But in reality, electrons in the potential well of atoms and molecules frequently exit their wells through a process now known as "tunneling".  This is one example of a boundary condition.   Another example would be the interface between two phases, such as liquid water and air.  In the air, molecules of various gases bounce around like billiard balls at normal temperatures, careening off of each other and off of the surface of the water.  In the interior of the liquid, water molecules move about but slower than the air molecules overhead.  They form transient weak hydrogen bonds and van der Waal bonds between each other in three dimensions and thus behave in a fashion and as a somewhat cohesive ensemble that has physical properties like viscosity and temperature.  But at the uppermost layer of the surface of the water, the water molecules bond to each other differently than they do in the liquid interior.  At the surface, they form a two dimensional weakly bonded lattice that actually has even stronger intermolecular attractive forces.  This causes the water phase to behave as if it were covered by a "skin".  This surface layer of water molecules thus changes the properties of the bulk liquid water molecules and creates a new force or property we measure as "surface tension".   Surface tension does not exist within the liquid interior.  It is another type of boundary condition that is not derivable from first chemical or physical principles, but rather springs from the reality of nature and her quirky ways.

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Copyrighted (C) 2002 by Joseph H. Guth.  All rights reserved.  No reproduction or other use of this content may be made in any form without the express written consent of the author.