The Physicochemical Universe
Towards a Comprehensive and Comprehensible Cosmology
Home | In the Beginning... Infinite Space, Infinite Time | Towards a Comprehensive and Comprehensible Cosmology | Cosmology Model Categories | Relativity, Quantum Theory, Scales of Size and Frames of Reference | The Underpinnings of Current Cosmological Theories | Hubble Redshift -- The Experimental Data | Far Infrared Measurements and Absolute Zero Temperatures | The Clumpiness of Matter Distribution | The Intergalactic Medium | The Nature of Dark Matter | The Interpretations of Current Cosmological Theories | Non-Linearity of Physical Phenomena | The Nature of Fields | Chaos Theory and Natural Universal Physical Phenomena | The Arrow of Time and The Tensors of Space-Time | The Second Law | Boundary Conditions of the Universe | Phase Changes of Matter and Black Hole Physics | Subatomic Particle Theory and Quark Physics | Magnetic Fields, Jets and Black Holes | The Formation and Evolution of Stars | The Formation of Higher Elements | Nova, Supernova and Higher Elements | Active Galactic Nuclei and Black Holes as Strange Attractors | The Formation and Evolution of Galactic Structure | Black Hole Collisions and Quasars | Broad Band Fluorescence and Redshift | Beers-Lambert Law Ignored | Physicochemical Reinterpretations | Black Holes, Quarks, and Hydrogen Regeneration Cycles | New Conclusions, Predictions and Opinions | Literature References | Hubble's Farthest Views | About the Author

Suppose the Hubble Redshift was NOT caused so much by relative motion and velocity? Suppose most of the redshifts were a function of some very ordinary and even common physical or chemical effect throughout the thinner portions of space?

I've been saying that for over 45 years!  The proof of the Big Bang error is all around us. 
Just to preview some of the inconsistencies and paradoxes that current views lead to, let's take a closer look at some founding principles and observations that have evolved into the current collection of cosmological theories before we look at the more physically-grounded theory that is espoused here.
The following items and discussions are intended for those committed to pursuing only scientifically measurable and testable hypotheses.  The dependence of theoreticians on pure mathematical arguments is not an acceptable substitute for a testable and verifiable Theory of Everything! 

When the relative velocities of closer stars and galaxies are measured in various ways other than redshifts, they typically fall in the 0 to 300 km/second range. So if this is also the likely range of velocities that more distant objects would attain, if we assume that things are the same througout a more or less constantly recycling and infinite universe, then the majority of any larger redshift measured for more distant objects may very well be caused by non-velocity based mechanisms.

1.  In all visible parts of the universe, including our own laboratories, matter and energy interconvert but never disappears nor reappears from a field-less vacuum.
2.  The stronger our telescopes have become over the past 6 centuries, the farther out they can see and the further back in time they can detect light (luminescent) and dark (non-luminescent) matter.  Who is certain enough to guarantee that if we built an even larger telescope now, we could not see even further away than 13-14 billion light years distance?  I would suggest only fools and madmen would be so certain of such folly. 
    At the present time, we are getting more and more reports of inconsistencies between the extrapolated "age" of the expanding universe's model and the presence of older, organized structures near or even beyond that Hubble Big Bang limit!  A growing number of astrophysicists and cosmologists are finally beginning to question their ASSUMPTION about the age of the supposed observable universe when they observe such "over-limit" ancient galaxies but little or no questioning has reached the public forums on whether there is more universe that is beyond the present limitations of our small telescopes. 
    If they taught the Beers-Lambert Law in astronomy classes like it is taught in chemistry, the astrophysicists would have been more attuned to and aware of the relationship between the light pathlength versus the concentration of spectrally-active substances in outer space.  In extremely long light pathlengths, such as exist between us and a glowing galaxy some 10 - 13 billion light years distant, the concentration of a redshifting spectrally-active substance would only have to be on the order of an atom or so every cubic centimeter!  The overall effect on the spectrum is identical to and indistinguishable from a recessional velocity mechanism, i.e., the farther away the light source, the more redshifted the spectral features of its visible spectrum!
3.  Olber's paradox made an erroneous assumption that all the universe is composed of only luminescent light sources (stars).  With the realization that there is an abundance of dark, opaque matter and light-scattering dust out there, a dark sky is the new logical deduction.
4.  There are a number of physicochemical mechanisms other than recessional velocity that can lead to a redshift in spectral lines.  Hubble only reported on a few selected remote galaxies' spectra when he conducted his redshift research.  It was others who applied the main scientific ASSUMPTION that the apparent redshifted spectra were caused by the physics of recessional velocity (a la Doppler)!  That then led to the ASSUMPTION that if we find redshifted spectra in all directions, it must mean that the universe is expanding.  Of course, that is pure rubbish.  But it was then tenuously tied mathematically to relativity theory and that made the continuing scientific skeptics less vociferous since they had no ready alternate hypothesis to explain things.  This all transpired before the 1920s.  During the first half of the 20th century and especially towards the 1950s, physical and analytical chemists and spectroscopists developed many important new observations about how matter and light interact and with some of those interactions, interesting changes took place with the initial spectral properties.  These changes included a shift of spectral lines and bands, usually towards the red end of the visible spectrum.  Such redshift observations were made in the field of Optical Rotatory Dispersion and Circular Dichroism and the effects of light-scattering particles of certain sizes and polarizing properties.  
    The sharp absorption and emission lines and bands in the visible spectrum are created by electron transitions in atoms and molecules.  Those are relatively low energy phenomena.  But when one looks for redshifts in spectral features originating in the soft or hard x-ray, gamma ray or even infrared parts of the spectra of very remote objects, no reports have been forthcoming that those parts of the spectrum show a redshift consistent with the distance of the object, as Hubble's relationship points out for the visible spectral features.  Could it be that the redshift is only present in the UV and visible portion of the spectrum because the underlying physical mechanism is only capable of interacting with that narrow range of energy levels?  That speaks strikingly against the Doppler mechanism for the redshift mechanism. 
    Such underlying redshift mechanisms could include the following physicochemical interactions:
    A.  Fluorescence, especially if caused by mixed polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds (rather abundant in space)
    B.  Differential Mie and Tyndall light scattering (e.g., why the sky is blue and the sunset is red and the ocean becomes bluer the deeper you go)
    C.  Light reflection from polarizing surfaces
    D.  Internal refraction and birefringence that takes place within transmitted light in certain common crystalline substances (e.g., calcite)
    E.  Pleochroism that occurs as light passes through certain organic and inorganic photoactive compounds (e.g., colloidal silver particles in suspension or as a thin cloud in a vacuum)
    F.  Phosphorescence (basically a longer duration mechanism similar to fluorescence)
    G. Diffraction (such as causes the scales of butterflies and fishes to appear colored when they are not)
    H. Luminescence (chemical reactions, photochemical reactions, or physical force can induce light emission or altered spectral properties)
    If you set up your test apparatus properly, each and every one of the above mechanisms will show an APPARENT redshift in the optical spectrum of a light source.  No relativistic recessional motion of the light source is required!   QED

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Copyrighted (C) 2002 by Joseph H. Guth.  All rights reserved.  No reproduction or other use of this content may be made in any form without the express written consent of the author.