According to the original precepts of steady-state theory, the universe expands, but new matter
is continuously created at all points in space left by the receding galaxies. The theory implies that the universe has always
expanded, with no beginning or end, at a uniform rate and that it always will expand and maintain a constant density.
It implies that there is a space beyond its boundaries into which it can expand. It also invokes the creation of matter
and energy from nothing at just the same rate as the supposed expansion is occurring.
According to the general idea behind big-bang theories, there was a "beginning" of time and of our
observable universe. At the beginning of time (never spelled out as to how "long" it remained in the pre-bang condition),
all of the matter and energy in the universe was concentrated in a single, very dense point, from which it exploded (no triggering
reason supplied as to why or how it did this), with the resulting expansion continuing up to the present. This big bang has
been dated between 10 and 20 billion years ago using various calculations based on physical measurements and observations,
with the current best estimates at between 13 and 14 billion years.
In this initial state, the universe was very hot and contained a thermal soup of quarks, electrons, photons,
and other elementary particles . The temperature rapidly decreased, falling from 10 13 degrees Kelvin after
the first microsecond to about four magnitudes lower (one billion degrees) after three minutes (where did this
missing energy go????). Thermal energy is never lost from our physical universe in present day, but seems to
have been mislaid in this part of the Big Bang models! In modern times, the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
tell us that the higher temp regions flow towards the lower temp regions and that matter goes from a higher state of organization
to a lower state of organization, all the while expanding into surrounding accessible spaces. In the Big Bang
models, the entropy of the exploding universe is increasing as it should while the temperature drops, but where did the original
heat energy ultimately wind up? Was it radiated at such an early time point in the initial stages of the explosion that
it preceded any matter into the outer most reaches of the matter-containing universe? Is it now existing
as pure infrared electromagnetic waves well beyond any matter that was subsequently thrown out by the BB explosion?
If infrared electromagnetic waves move through the vacuum of matterless space without encountering any forms of matter
then their presence should not be observable since it is their effects on matter that clue us in to the existence
of infrared energy (e.g., temperature and pressure increases due to higher kinetic energy content of the moving particles).
All untestable hypotheses and the lack of asking these critical questions does not allow the Big Bang Hypothetical Models
to rise to the level of a scientific theory, IMHO.
As the universe cooled, the quarks condensed into protons and neutrons, the building blocks of atomic
nuclei. Some of these were converted into helium nuclei by fusion; the relative abundance of hydrogen and helium is used as
a test of the theory. After many millions of years the expanding universe, at first a very hot, swirling gas, thinned
and cooled enough to condense into individual galaxies and then stars. The concept of condensation in this environment
of empty space just confuses the underlying issues. Empty space containing various kinds of matter at different
temperatures and in different phases that don't change their physical state (i.e., plasma, gas, liquid, solid) but can
change their state of aggregation is but another blurring of the actual behaviors being discussed. This is because
it was formed by analogy to the temperature-dependent physics that occur during phase changes in matter rather than the
physics of gravitational aggregation, which is not necessarily a temperature-dependent phenomenon.
Several remarkable discoveries since 1950 have shed new light on the problem. Optical and radio astronomy complemented
each other in the discovery of the quasars and the radio galaxies. It is believed that the energy reaching us now from some
of these objects was emitted not long after the creation of the universe. Further evidence for the Big-Bang theory was the
discovery in 1965 that a cosmic background noise is received from every part of the sky. This background radiation has almost
the same intensity and distribution of frequencies in all directions and is not associated with any individual celestial object.
It has a black body temperature of 2.7°K and is interpreted as the electromagnetic remnant of the primordial fireball, stretched
to long wavelengths by the expansion of the universe. More recently, the analysis of radiation from distant celestial objects
detected by artificial satellites has been interpreted as additional evidence for the Big-Bang theory.
One variant of the Big-Bang theory that became popular since the 1980s was the modified BB theory
called Inflationary Theory, developed principally by Alan Guth (no known relation to the author of these webpages).
In this variant, the rate of expansion was not constant nor simple in its velocity profile but changed as a function of time
after explosion. It was something of a fitful picture of expansion and after a number of years of contrary or inconsistent observations
it led to an even more bizarre set of "corrections" to explain the data. Now we must postulate yet another invisible,
untestable, unverifiable force that they call "negative gravity"! Whatever happened to Occam and his razor? Numerous
others have begun with the present set of ASSUMPTIONS created by these cosmological sorcerers and have been busy trying
to unify other areas of physics to this house of cards. Quantum physics, particle physics, gravitational physics,
and relativity have suffered attempts at being wed to this still-as-yet untestable and unverifiable foundation.
This has led to further convoluted thinking that has given rise to such newer notions as particles that cannot be observed
(MACHOS, WIMPS, strings, superstrings, branes, etc.) and similar dead ends or soon-to-be deadends of scientific explorations.
All are trying to create a completely integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) but have such a backlog of unscientific baggage
that I have predicted that a lot of human work, thought and research dollars will ultimately be found to be misspent
and a backlash against underwriting scientific research will likely happen in the future.
Guth Physicochemical Cosmology Theory
The current theory presented here does not fall into either of the above two classical groups.
It posits that the universe is infinite in its extent in three dimensions, without any limits or external voids into
which to expand, nor any hyperdimensional geometries into which it can expand and unfold. It also posits that the
universe is infinite in terms of its age. It was, is and always will be filled with the matter and energy forms
that currently are found throughout it. There is no beginning nor end to it. If one took an indefinite trip into
the universe in any given direction, the trip would continue indefinitely in that direction, subject to the relativistically-driven
modifications of the path of travel in the vicinity of gravitational or other distortional fields and remaining
outside of the sphere of influence of Black Hole horizons.
Matter and energy would be introconvertable through various cyclic processes that would recreate hydrogen
to begin stellar fusion processes. Black hole gravitational fields that drive the successive collapse of formed
matter into smaller and smaller fundamental particles would be the transient engines or focal points of this matter recreation.
At certain levels of pressure and mass, the entire ensemble becomes unstable and explosively disintegrates. These
metastable states and instabilities in the continuum of matter and energy aggregation are the ultimate determinants of how
much matter and/or energy can accumulate around any point or location in space. It is at those points of destabilization
that the cycles of particle generation and energy transformation are closed into their ultimate cyclic forms. In effect,
I am postulating that the Big Bang did not happen only once but that it happens throughout the universe on a smaller scale
in each and every Black Hole! But more on Black Holes in a little bit.
Thus it would be more appropriate to create a new category in cosmology. It would be described as an infinite,
heterogeneous, chaotic, cyclically regenerative, four-dimensional cosmological model that is very much like
modern physical science has found our earth and its nearby vicinity. If I had my choice, I would dub this
an Continuously Infinite Physicochemical Model or CIP model.
Let's see how this kind of model would work and what scientifically observable and testable deductions we can make from it.